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A Parábola das Dez Virgens – Jan Luyken

Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins, 1700, Johannes Luyken (Also known as Jan Luyken, Dutch Poet, Illustrator and Engraver, 1649–1712), etching, 14.9 x 21.25 cm, Illustration to Mathew 25:1-13 in “Bible de Mortier”

Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins (The Wise and Foolish Virgins / De gelijkenis der wijze en dwaze maagden / Fünf kluge und fünf törichte Jungfrauen), 1700, Johannes Luyken (Also known as Jan Luyken, Dutch Poet, Illustrator and Engraver, 1649–1712), etching, 14.9 x 21.25 cm. In: De grote Mortierbijbel”, known as “The Great Bible of Pieter Mortier”, published by Pieter Mortier (Dutch Mapmaker and Engraver, 1661–1711), Amsterdam, 1700. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Ilustration to Mathew 25:1-13. Large size here.

DETAIL: Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins, 1700, Johannes Luyken (Also known as Jan Luyken, Dutch Poet, Illustrator and Engraver, 1649–1712), etching, 14.9 x 21.25 cm, Illustration to Mathew 25:1-13 in “Bible de Mortier”

DETAIL: Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins, 1700, Johannes Luyken (Also known as Jan Luyken, Dutch Poet, Illustrator and Engraver, 1649–1712), etching, 14.9 x 21.25 cm, Illustration to Mathew 25:1-13 in “Bible de Mortier”

DETAIL: Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins, 1700, Johannes Luyken (Also known as Jan Luyken, Dutch Poet, Illustrator and Engraver, 1649–1712), etching, 14.9 x 21.25 cm, Illustration to Mathew 25:1-13 in “Bible de Mortier”

Notes: Robert Bowyer (British Miniature Painter and Publisher, 1758–1834) begun his illustrated Bible in 1791 and finished in 1795, included 32 engravings by James Fittler (British Engraver and illustrator, 1758–1835) after Old Master paintings. Bowyer also bought prints in France that he incorporated into a later edition known as “Bowyer’s Bible“; he had an agent purchase even more during the Napoleonic wars. These were added to Thomas Macklin (British Printseller and Picture Dealer, 1752/3–1800) illustrated edition of the Bible. The six volumes of the “Macklin Bible” have been expanded by careful grangerisation, extending it to 45 volumes. These volumes containing 6,330 illustrations. It was donated to Bolton libraries by his descendants in 1948 and is now on display in Bolton Museum, Greater Manchester, England.

It seems, the oldest source was the “De grote Mortierbijbel”. Pieter Mortier (Dutch Mapmaker and Engraver, 1661–1711) worked on etchings for Bybelsche Tafereelen (Bible stories), published in Amsterdam in 1700. David van der Plas (Dutch Golden Age Portrait Painter, 1647–1704) worked with Mortier on the etchings. “Bible de Mortier” was “L’Histoire du vieux et du Nouveau Testament, Enrichie de plus de quatre cens Figures en Taille Douce”, a famous illustrated biblical history with 428 engraved biblical illustrations plus the 2 frontispieces and other unnumbered illustrations. The work is known as “De grote Bijbel van Pieter Mortier” (the great Bible of Pieter Mortier). It appeared in 1700 simultaneously in a French and a Dutch edition. There are 214 engraved plates, each with two illustrations of biblical scenes with engraved text in Dutch and French, drawn by various artists, including the well-known Dutch artists Bernard Picart (1673- 1733), Jan Luyken (1649-1712), Gerard Hoet (1648-1733), Jan Goeree (1670-1731) and Ottmar Elliger II (1666–1735). Another important source was the popular “Sailor’s Bible” called “Lusthof des Gemoeds“, by Jan Philipsz Schabaelje, 1714.

Currently, some copies of these etchings are exhibited in museums around the world. Recently a work was conducted by Phillip Medhurst, formely chaplain of Malvern College, Worcestershire, England. Medhurst’s purchase and collation of prints illustrating the Bowyer’s Bible (“The Phillip Medhurst Collection“) uses the photographic works of Harry Kossuth, formely scholar of Wadham College, Oxford, UK. The collection is housed at Belgrave Hall, Leicester, UK.

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